Charles Sanders Peirce was an American philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. He is widely considered the founder of pragmatism and semiotics. Most of his 100,000 pages of writings were never published and he continuously reworked his earlier ideas, leaving many of them unfinished. Scholars are still figuring out what Peirce could or should have said. Besides the idea of abduction and the pragmatist maxim, we also work through some of Peirce's notions of semiotics. Stefan's book (co-authored with Mara Buchbinder) Saving Babies? applies some of the ideas of adductive analysis.
We recommend the two volumes of The Essential Peirce as an entry point in the thinking of Peirce. A highly readable introduction to pragmatism centered around Peirce is Cheryl Misak's book The American Pragmatists.
For a provocative application of Peirce's semiosis, you may want to pick up Eduardo Kohn's How Forests Think.